Understanding Brexit: The UK’s Path to Leaving the EU

Brexit symbolises a pivotal moment in both British and European history. It marks the culmination of a complex and often contentious relationship between the UK and the EU, characterised by debates over sovereignty, economic policies, and the balance of benefits and obligations of membership.

The decision to leave the EU was made through a public referendum on June 23 2016, known as the “Brexit vote”.

The outcome revealed a divided nation, with 52% voting in favour of leaving and 48% voting to remain. This result set the stage for years of negotiations, discussions, and sometimes heated debates about the future relationship between the UK and its European neighbours.

Ultimately, the long-term impact of Brexit will depend on the UK’s ability to navigate its new relationship with the EU, ensure stability and prosperity for its citizens, and redefine its role in an increasingly interconnected and competitive world.


Section A: Background to Brexit


1. What is Brexit?


Brexit, a portmanteau of “British” and “exit,” is the term that refers to the United Kingdom’s decision to leave the European Union (EU), a political and economic union of 28 European countries that participate in a unified internal market and follow common legislation in various domains.


2. Historical Relationship Between the UK and the EU


The historical relationship between the United Kingdom (UK) and the European Union (EU) has been complex and nuanced, marked by periods of ambivalence, negotiation, and debate over the extent of political and economic integration desirable for the UK. This intricate relationship set the foundation for the eventual Brexit decision.

The UK’s relationship with what would become the EU began in the post-World War II era, as European nations sought to foster economic cooperation and prevent future conflicts.

The European Economic Community (EEC), a precursor to the EU, was formed in 1957 by the Treaty of Rome.

Initially, the UK opted not to join, favouring a looser trade relationship with European countries through the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

However, by the early 1960s, as the economic benefits of EEC membership became apparent, the UK sought to join.

In 1963 and 1967, it faced vetoes from France under President Charles de Gaulle, mainly due to concerns over the UK’s close ties to the United States and its perceived lack of commitment to European integration.

The UK finally joined the EEC in 1973, under the Conservative government of Edward Heath, after de Gaulle’s resignation made accession possible. This contentious decision led to a referendum in 1975 on continued membership.

The public voted overwhelmingly (67% to 33%) to remain, reflecting a pro-European sentiment that would gradually shift over the following decades.


3. Major Events Leading Up to the Brexit Decision


Over the years, the EU evolved from a primarily economic union into a more political entity, with expanded powers in environmental regulation, justice, and home affairs. This shift fueled debates within the UK about sovereignty and the merits of EU membership.

Significant milestones include signing the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, which founded the EU and introduced European citizenship, and adopting the Lisbon Treaty in 2007, which enhanced the EU’s political structures and decision-making processes.

The UK often negotiated opt-outs from crucial EU policies, reflecting its ambivalence towards more profound integration. This was evident in its decision to stay out of the Eurozone, the group of EU countries that adopted the euro as their official currency.

Euroscepticism within the UK intensified, driven by concerns over immigration, sovereignty, and regulatory overreach by the EU. The 2008 financial crisis and subsequent Eurozone debt crisis exacerbated these sentiments, highlighting the economic risks of close integration.

The Conservative Party, facing pressure from the UK Independence Party (UKIP) and eurosceptic elements within its ranks, promised a referendum on EU membership in its 2015 general election manifesto. This pledge was seen as a strategy to address internal party divisions and the electoral threat from UKIP. The party’s victory in the general election set the stage for the 2016 referendum.


4. Public and Political Sentiments Driving the Brexit Vote


Public and political sentiments influenced the Brexit vote, with immigration, sovereignty, and economic concerns playing pivotal roles.

Campaigns leading up to the referendum highlighted issues such as the perceived loss of control over UK borders due to the EU’s free movement policy and the belief that the UK contributed more to the EU budget than it received in benefits.

The “Leave” campaign capitalised on a growing disillusionment with political elites and institutions, framing Brexit as an opportunity for the UK to “take back control” of its laws, borders, and finances.

Meanwhile, the “Remain” campaign focused on the economic risks of leaving the EU, including potential impacts on trade, investment, and jobs.

Despite these warnings, the desire for sovereignty and control over immigration policy resonated with a significant portion of the electorate, reflecting deeper societal divisions and a widespread desire for change.

The result was a narrow but decisive vote to leave, underscoring the deep-rooted ambivalence and complexities in the UK’s relationship with the EU.


Section B: The Brexit Vote


1. The Brexit Referendum Question


The referendum on the United Kingdom’s membership in the European Union, known as the Brexit referendum, was held on June 23 2016.

The question posed to voters was straightforward: “Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union?”

Voters were given two options: “Remain a member of the European Union” or “Leave the European Union.”


2. Campaigning


The campaign period leading up to the referendum was intense and deeply divisive. It saw the emergence of two main campaign groups: “Britain Stronger in Europe” (commonly referred to as “Remain”) and “Vote Leave.”


a. Britain Stronger in Europe

The official campaign to remain in the EU was supported by then-Prime Minister David Cameron and the majority of the Labour Party, as well as the Liberal Democrats, the SNP, and prominent figures from business, academia, and culture.

This campaign emphasised the economic risks of leaving the EU, including potential job losses, decreased investment, and negative trade impacts.


b. Vote Leave

The official campaign to leave the EU was supported by prominent Conservative politicians such as Boris Johnson and Michael Gove and members of other parties, including UKIP’s then-leader Nigel Farage.

This campaign focused on issues of sovereignty, the bureaucratic nature of the EU, and particularly immigration, arguing that leaving the EU would allow the UK to regain control over its borders and laws.


3. Referendum Results


The referendum’s outcome was a victory for the “Leave” campaign, with 52% of voters opting to leave the EU and 48% voting to remain, on a 72% turnout.

The referendum revealed significant regional variations across the UK:


a. England

The UK’s largest and most populous country, England, voted to leave the EU by 53.4% to 46.6%. Notably, England had stark contrasts, with major cities like London voting strongly to remain while many northern and coastal areas voted to leave.


b. Scotland

Voters in Scotland showed strong support for remaining in the EU, with 62% voting to remain and 38% to leave. This result sparked discussions in Scotland about the possibility of a second independence referendum, as the Scottish National Party argued that Scotland was being taken out of the EU against its will.


c. Wales

Wales voted to leave the EU, with 52.5% for leave and 47.5% for remain, despite receiving significant EU funding, especially in economically disadvantaged areas.


d. Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland voted to remain in the EU, with 55.8% remaining and 44.2% leaving, raising concerns about the impact of Brexit on the peace process and the future of the border with the Republic of Ireland.


4. Immediate Public and International Reactions


Many met The referendum result with shock and disbelief, particularly in the Remain camp. The immediate aftermath saw a polarised country, with reports of increased incidents of racism and xenophobia, as well as public demonstrations both in support of and against the result.

Internationally, the Brexit vote caused a stir among world leaders and financial markets.

The EU called for the UK to begin negotiations to leave as soon as possible, emphasising the need to maintain a close relationship.

Global markets experienced volatility, reflecting uncertainty about the economic implications of Brexit.

Leaders worldwide expressed their regret at the decision and their respect for the democratic process.

The referendum and its aftermath marked a significant moment in UK and European history, highlighting deep divisions within the UK and the complex nature of the UK’s relationship with the EU.


Section C: Negotiating Brexit


1. Negotiation Process Between the UK and the EU


The negotiation process for Brexit was complex and spanned several years.

Following the Brexit referendum in June 2016, the UK formally triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union on March 29 2017, starting a two-year process to negotiate its exit terms, which was later extended multiple times.

Negotiations were officially launched in June 2017, focusing on withdrawal arrangements, the future relationship between the UK and the EU, and the transition period to smooth the process.

The EU appointed Michel Barnier as its Chief Negotiator. At the same time, the UK’s negotiation position was led initially by David Davis, Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, followed by Dominic Raab and then Stephen Barclay.


2. Key Negotiation Issues


a. Trade

One of the central issues was the future trade relationship between the UK and the EU.

The UK sought to leave the single market and customs union to negotiate its trade deals but wished to maintain as frictionless trade as possible with the EU.

The challenge was finding a balance that avoided tariffs and border checks, especially important for the Irish border, without compromising the integrity of the EU’s single market.


b. Immigration

Freedom of movement between the UK and EU countries was a contentious issue.

The UK aimed to regain control over its immigration policy, a significant point of contention in the referendum campaign. However, the EU maintained that access to its single market was inherently tied to the free movement of people.


c. Regulations
Diverging from EU regulations presented challenges in sectors ranging from finance to pharmaceuticals. The UK sought autonomy in setting its regulations while still desiring access to the EU market, a point of contention given the EU’s insistence on regulatory alignment for market access.


d. Financial Settlement

The so-called “divorce bill,” the financial settlement the UK would need to pay upon leaving, was a major early hurdle. This covered the UK’s outstanding EU budget and funding programme commitments.


e. Citizens’ Rights

Protecting the rights of EU citizens in the UK and UK citizens in the EU was a priority for both sides. The subsequent UK-EU Withdrawal Agreement preserved residency and employment rights, among other protections.


3. Role of the UK Parliament


The UK Parliament played a critical role in the Brexit negotiations, with any deal reached by negotiators requiring parliamentary approval. This proved a significant hurdle, as divisions within the Conservative Party and the opposition made it difficult to achieve consensus.

The withdrawal agreement negotiated by then-Prime Minister Theresa May was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading to her resignation.

Key points of contention within the UK Parliament included the nature of the future trade relationship with the EU, the rights of citizens, the financial settlement, and particularly the “Irish backstop,” a mechanism designed to prevent a hard border on the island of Ireland. The backstop would have kept the UK in a customs union with the EU if no trade deal had been reached, which would have avoided a hard border. This provision was unacceptable to many MPs, who saw it as limiting the UK’s ability to forge its trade policies.

Ultimately, Boris Johnson succeeded Theresa May as Prime Minister, renegotiating parts of the withdrawal agreement, particularly around the Irish border issue, and leading his party to a substantial victory in the December 2019 general election.

This mandate allowed him to secure parliamentary approval for his version of the withdrawal agreement, leading to the UK formally leaving the EU on January 31 2020, and entering a transition period that lasted until the end of December 2020, during which the future relationship, including trade and other arrangements, was negotiated.


Section D: Implications of Brexit


While Brexit has allowed the UK to chart its course, it has also presented significant economic, social, and political challenges that will shape the country’s future for years to come.


1. Economic Impact


a. Trade Deals

Following Brexit, the UK had the task of renegotiating trade agreements with the EU and countries around the world that had trade deals with the EU.

One of the most significant achievements was the Trade and Cooperation Agreement with the EU in December 2020, which allowed for tariff-free trade on most goods but introduced new customs checks and non-tariff barriers.

The UK also secured trade agreements with countries like Japan and is negotiating entry into the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).


b. Market Reactions
The immediate aftermath of the Brexit referendum saw significant market volatility, with the pound sterling falling to its lowest level in decades. While markets have largely stabilised, the uncertainty around negotiations and the future UK-EU relationship has had lingering effects on investment decisions and business confidence.


c. Long-Term Forecasts

Economic forecasts regarding the long-term impact of Brexit are mixed and highly dependent on the final terms of the UK’s relationship with the EU and its success in forging new trade relationships. Most analyses predict that Brexit will result in a lower level of GDP compared to remaining in the EU due to increased trade barriers and reduced foreign direct investment. However, the extent of this impact varies widely among studies.


2. Social Implications


a. Immigration

One of the most immediate social changes post-Brexit was the end of free movement between the UK and the EU. This affected both EU citizens in the UK and UK citizens in the EU, leading to new residency and visa requirements.

The UK has introduced a points-based immigration system, prioritising skilled workers but making it more difficult for lower-skilled workers to enter the country.


b. Residency Rights

EU citizens who were already living in the UK before the end of the transition period were required to apply under the EU Settlement Scheme to retain their residency rights.

Similarly, UK nationals living in the EU have had to secure their residency status according to the rules of their host country.


c. Public Services

Brexit has had implications for public services, particularly the National Health Service (NHS), which relies significantly on EU nationals in its workforce. There have been concerns about staffing shortages and the impact on service delivery, although the full effects remain to be seen.


3. Political Outcomes


a. UK Domestic Politics

Brexit has significantly reshaped the UK’s domestic political landscape. It led to the resignation of two Prime Ministers, David Cameron and Theresa May. It bolstered support for the Conservative Party under Boris Johnson, who campaigned on a platform to “get Brexit done.”

The Labour Party has faced challenges defining its position on Brexit, contributing to its loss in the 2019 general election.

Brexit has also intensified discussions about the future of the United Kingdom, particularly in Scotland, where there is increasing support for another independence referendum.


b. International Standing

Brexit has necessitated a redefinition of the UK’s role on the international stage. While the UK seeks to position itself as a global trading nation, forging new alliances and partnerships, its departure from the EU has undoubtedly diminished its influence in European affairs.

Additionally, countries worldwide have closely watched the process of leaving the EU and the challenges encountered, affecting perceptions of the UK’s political stability and diplomatic clout.


Section E: The UK’s Post-Brexit Future


1. Current Status of the UK-EU Relationship


The relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union has transitioned into a new phase following the conclusion of the Brexit transition period on December 31 2020.


a. UK-EU Withdrawal Agreement


The Withdrawal Agreement, signed in January 2020, paved the way for the UK’s official exit from the European Union, which will take place formally at the end of that month.


Key provisions include:


Citizen Rights: This crucial aspect protects the rights of EU citizens residing in the UK and UK nationals living in the EU. It allows them to continue living and working in their chosen country, subject to registration procedures.

Financial Settlement: The UK agreed to contribute financially to the EU budget for a period to cover outstanding commitments made during its membership.

Transition Period: The agreement included a transition period until the end of 2020 (extended to December 31). During this time, EU law continued to apply in the UK, allowing businesses and individuals to adjust to the new reality.

Northern Ireland Protocol: This complex protocol aims to prevent a hard border on the island of Ireland. It keeps Northern Ireland aligned with some aspects of the EU single market for goods to avoid disruption to trade with the Republic of Ireland. This has caused friction due to checks on goods moving between Northern Ireland and Great Britain.


b. Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA)


The Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA), which came into effect on January 1 2021, outlines the parameters for trade between the UK and the EU, establishing quotas, tariffs, and new regulatory procedures. However, it does not eliminate all trade barriers, and since implementation has resulted in additional checks and documentation for businesses.

Services, a significant part of the UK economy, are essentially outside the agreement’s scope, which has led to challenges for sectors such as finance.


2. Areas of Cooperation


a. Security and Defence

Despite the split, collaboration on security issues remains a priority. The UK continues to participate in information sharing and some joint operations.


b. Scientific Research

The UK recently rejoined the EU’s flagship research program, Horizon Europe, signifying a commitment to continued collaboration in scientific advancements.


c. Migration

Both sides recognise the need for continued cooperation on border management and tackling irregular migration.


3. Ongoing Challenges and Areas of Negotiation


a. Northern Ireland Protocol

One of the most contentious issues remains the Northern Ireland Protocol, designed to prevent a hard border between Northern Ireland (part of the UK) and the Republic of Ireland (an EU member). The protocol has led to checks on goods moving between Great Britain and Northern Ireland, causing tensions within the UK, particularly among unionist communities in Northern Ireland. Negotiations continue over the implementation of the protocol and efforts to reduce the associated trade frictions.


b. Financial Services

The TCA does not comprehensively cover financial services, whereas London is a global leader. Both sides intend to discuss access to each other’s financial markets, but progress could be faster. The UK seeks equivalence decisions from the EU that would allow UK firms to serve EU clients more seamlessly, but such decisions remain at the EU’s discretion.


c. Fishing Rights

Fishing rights were initially a significant point of contention, but the TCA addressed them. However, the agreement allows for adjustments and negotiations over time, meaning disputes could re-emerge as quotas and access rights are reviewed.


d. Future Cooperation

The TCA covers security, law enforcement, and foreign policy. Still, the relationship in these domains needs to be more comprehensive than when the UK was an EU member. Future cooperation may evolve as both parties navigate their new relationship.


e. Regulatory Divergence

The UK’s freedom to set its regulations raises concerns about maintaining a level playing field for trade. The EU is wary of any significant divergence that could give UK businesses an unfair advantage.


4. Long-Term Implications


a. For the UK

Post-Brexit, the UK can forge its trade deals and set independent policies. However, it faces the challenge of balancing national sovereignty with the economic benefits of close ties to the EU.

Long-term implications include potential shifts in the UK’s economic structure, especially if it significantly diversifies its trading relationships beyond the EU. The political landscape may also see further shifts, particularly concerning the unity of the UK itself, as Brexit has fueled discussions about Scottish independence and the future of Northern Ireland.


b. For the EU

The UK’s departure marks the first time a member state has left the EU, setting a precedent for how the union handles potential future departures or realignments. While the EU has maintained unity throughout the Brexit process, it must address internal challenges such as democratic legitimacy, economic disparities among member states, and external pressures. Brexit also prompts the EU to reconsider its global role, particularly in trade and diplomatic relations.


c. Overall

The long-term implications of Brexit for the UK and the EU largely depend on how both entities navigate their future relationship. While challenges remain, there are also opportunities for cooperation and mutual benefit. The evolving global economic and political landscape will also influence the direction of the UK-EU relationship as both seek to assert their influence and protect their interests in a rapidly changing world.


Section F: Summary


Brexit, a historic and unprecedented process, has reshaped the landscape of the United Kingdom and the European Union, marking a significant shift in their relationship and posing challenges and opportunities for the future.

From the roots of Brexit, deeply embedded in the complex historical relationship between the UK and the EU, to the negotiation hurdles and the wide-ranging implications of this decision, the journey has been fraught with uncertainty, division, and negotiation.

The referendum of June 23, 2016, crystallised decades of debate over the UK’s place in Europe. It reflected deep societal divisions and a desire for sovereignty and control over domestic affairs.

The negotiation process that followed was lengthy and complex, highlighting key issues such as trade, immigration, and regulatory alignment and underscored by the challenging task of maintaining peace on the island of Ireland through the Northern Ireland Protocol.

Brexit’s economic, social, and political implications are profound and far-reaching. Economically, while the UK has secured the freedom to negotiate its trade deals, it faces the challenge of navigating a new relationship with its largest trading partner, the EU, amidst potential long-term GDP impacts.

Socially, changes to immigration and residency rights have affected individuals and communities across the UK and EU. Politically, Brexit has led to reevaluating the UK’s domestic and international standing, influencing its global relationships and internal unity, particularly concerning Scotland and Northern Ireland.

The overall impact of Brexit remains complex and multifaceted. On one hand, it has afforded the UK more significant control over its laws and borders, a key demand of those who voted to leave. On the other, it has introduced new challenges and uncertainties, particularly regarding economic and social disruption and the UK’s role on the world stage.

Looking to the future, the UK’s path outside the EU is one of both potential and uncertainty. The ability to forge new global partnerships and trade agreements offers economic diversification and growth opportunities.

Brexit has proven not to be the end of a story but the beginning of a new chapter in the UK’s history. How this chapter unfolds will depend on the decisions made by the UK’s leaders, the resilience of its economy and society, and the dynamics of its relationships with the EU and other global partners. Undoubtedly, the future holds challenges, and there is a possibility for renewal and growth.


Section G: FAQs About Understanding Brexit, Its Process, and Effects


What is Brexit? 

Brexit refers to the United Kingdom’s decision to leave the European Union, a political and economic union of 27 European countries. The term is a blend of “Britain” and “exit.”


Why did the UK decide to leave the EU? 

The decision to leave was made through a public referendum held on June 23, 2016. Key factors driving the vote included concerns over sovereignty, immigration, and the belief that the UK could better manage its affairs outside the EU framework.


What was the result of the Brexit referendum? 

The referendum resulted in 52% of voters choosing to leave the EU, with 48% voting to remain. This led to the UK officially exiting the EU on January 31, 2020.


How long did the Brexit negotiations take?

Formal negotiations between the UK and the EU began in June 2017 and concluded with the ratification of the Withdrawal Agreement, which occurred on January 31, 2020. Further negotiations determined the future UK-EU relationship, culminating in the Trade and Cooperation Agreement effective January 1, 2021.


What are the critical issues negotiated in the Brexit deal? 

Key issues included trade and tariffs, the rights of EU citizens living in the UK and UK citizens living in the EU, the financial settlement the UK owes the EU, and arrangements for Northern Ireland to prevent a hard border with the Republic of Ireland.


Has Brexit affected the UK’s trade relationships? 

Yes, Brexit has significantly affected the UK’s trade relationships. While the UK has sought to forge new trade agreements globally, its trade with the EU now faces extra checks and balances, potentially impacting the smooth flow of goods and services.


What are the economic implications of Brexit for the UK?

Economic implications include changes in trade patterns, potential impacts on GDP growth, and adjustments in the financial services sector. The extent of these impacts will depend on ongoing negotiations and the UK’s ability to establish new economic relationships.


How has Brexit impacted immigration? 

Brexit has ended the freedom of movement between the UK and the EU, leading to new immigration rules and systems for both UK citizens in the EU and EU citizens in the UK. This includes a points-based immigration system for EU citizens wishing to move to the UK.


What is the Northern Ireland Protocol?

The Northern Ireland Protocol is part of the Withdrawal Agreement, designed to prevent a hard border between Northern Ireland (part of the UK) and the Republic of Ireland (an EU member) while ensuring that Northern Ireland continues to follow specific EU rules to facilitate trade.


What does the future hold for the UK outside the EU?

The future of the UK outside the EU involves navigating its new relationship with the EU, establishing new global trade agreements, and addressing internal challenges such as economic adaptation and national unity. The long-term effects of Brexit will unfold over the coming years, shaped by political, economic, and social factors.


Section H: Glossary of Key Terms Related to Brexit


Article 50: A clause in the Treaty on European Union that outlines the process for a member state to withdraw from the European Union.

Brexit: A portmanteau of “Britain” and “exit,” referring to the United Kingdom’s decision to leave the European Union.

Common Market: A group of countries imposing few or no duties on trade with one another and a standard tariff on trade with other countries. The term is often used to describe the European Single Market.

Customs Union: A trade agreement under which two or more countries agree not to impose tariffs on each other’s goods and to apply the same tariffs on goods imported from outside the union.

European Union (EU): A political and economic union of 27 countries located primarily in Europe. It has its currency, the euro, which is used by 19 of the member countries.

European Economic Area (EEA): A zone encompassing the European Union (EU) member states plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway, allowing them to be part of the EU’s single market.

European Free Trade Association (EFTA): A regional trade organisation and free trade area consisting of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. EFTA is not part of the EU.

Free Movement: Refers to the right of citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA) to move and reside freely within the territory of the member states.

Hard Brexit: A term used to describe a scenario in which the UK leaves the EU and does not remain in the single market or customs union, resulting in stricter controls on immigration and trade.

Irish Backstop: A safety net intended to ensure no hard border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland regardless of future UK-EU relations.

Leave: The campaign and decision to support the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union.

Maastricht Treaty: An international agreement that formalised political and economic integration among its member states, laying the foundation for the creation of the European Union (EU).

Northern Ireland Protocol: Part of the Brexit Withdrawal Agreement that deals with the post-Brexit position of Northern Ireland to avoid a hard border with the Republic of Ireland.

Referendum: A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to accept or reject a proposal. The Brexit referendum asked UK voters whether the UK should remain in or leave the EU.

Remain: The campaign was to support the United Kingdom’s remaining in the European Union during the 2016 referendum.

Single Market: Also known as the Internal Market, it allows free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the “four freedoms” – within the European Union.

Soft Brexit: A term used to describe a scenario in which the UK leaves the EU but maintains a close alignment with the EU, including remaining in the single market and/or customs union.

Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA): The trade deal agreed upon between the European Union and the United Kingdom sets the terms for their future relationship post-Brexit.

Withdrawal Agreement: The formal agreement between the United Kingdom and the European Union outlining the terms of the UK’s departure from the EU.


Section I: Additional Resources


Official Government Websites


GOV.UK – Brexit
Provides a comprehensive overview of the UK government’s position on Brexit, including key milestones, plans, and resources for businesses and individuals.


Department for International Trade (DIT)
The DIT website offers resources and guidance for businesses navigating the implications of Brexit on trade, customs, and regulations.


Think Tanks and Research Institutions


Bruegel is a European think tank that publishes research and analysis on Brexit’s economic and political implications.


The UK in a Changing Europe
Affiliated with King’s College London, this research institute provides an independent analysis of the UK’s relationship with the EU, including Brexit and its long-term consequences.


Additional Resources


European Commission
The European Commission’s website provides information on the EU’s perspective on Brexit, including the negotiation process and the future relationship between the EU and the UK.


Institute for Government – Brexit Timeline
This interactive timeline provides a clear overview of key events leading up to and following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU.



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